During the heyday of the Democratic machine, voter fraud was a common strategy used to skew votes and keep machine politicians in power. Voter fraud is done in many different ways including trashing of ballots and alteration of counting machine totals. In extreme cases of voter fraud there can be more votes cast than citizens residing in the area. By the early 90’s, thanks to the work of independent democrats like David Orr, measures were put into place to prevent the machine from continuing to win its elections through fraud. Volunteer poll watchers would be stationed throughout the city to prevent tampering of ballots and make sure that there was no suspicious activity.